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Definition[ edit ] The segregation problem is the problem of how brains segregate elements in complex patterns of sensory input so that they are allocated to discrete "objects". Although usually referred Academy thesis binding rathmines as a problem of binding, the computational problem is arguably one of discrimination.
For example, Bartels and Zeki have shown that different areas in the visual cortex specialize in processing the different aspects of colourmotionand shape. This type of modular coding has been claimed to yield a potential for ambiguity. When humans view a scene containing a blue square and a yellow circle, some neurons signal in response to blue, others signal in response to yellow, still others to a square shape or a circle shape.
Here, the binding problem is the issue of how the brain correctly pairs colour and shape, i. Empirical testing of the idea was given impetus when von der Malsburg proposed that feature binding posed a special problem that could not be covered simply by cellular firing rates.
However, there is inconsistency between findings from different laboratories. Moreover, a number of recent reviewers, including Shadlen and Movshon  and Merker  have raised concerns. Shadlen and Movshon,  raise a series of doubts about both the theoretical and the empirical basis for the idea of segregational binding by temporal synchrony.
Firstly, it is not clear that binding does pose a special computational problem of the sort proposed by von der Malsburg.
Secondly, it is unclear how synchrony would come to play a distinct role in terms of local computational logic. Thirdly, it is difficult to envisage a situation in which pre-synaptic firing rate and synchrony could be usefully interpreted independently by a post-synaptic cell, since the two are interdependent over plausible time scales.
Another point that has been raised is that within standard time frames for neuronal firing very few distinct phases of synchrony would be distinguishable even under optimal conditions.
In contrast, Seth  describes an artificial brain-based robot that demonstrates multiple, separate, widely distributed neural circuits, firing at different phases, suggesting that synchrony may assist the establishment of discrete object-related re-entrant circuits in a system exposed to randomly timed stimuli.
Goldfarb and Treisman  point out that a logical problem appears to arise for binding solely via synchrony if there are several objects that share some of their features and not others.
When viewing a display of variously coloured letters, internal representation of a red X, a green O, a red O and a green X cannot be accounted for purely by synchrony of signals for red and X shape, for instance. At best synchrony can facilitate segregation supported by other means as von der Malsburg acknowledges .
A number of neuropsychological studies suggest that the association of colour, shape and movement as "features of an object" is not simply a matter of linking or "binding".
Purves and Lotto  give extensive evidence for top-down feedback signals that ensure that sensory data are handled as features of sometimes wrongly postulated objects early in processing.
In many illusions data appear as if pre-consciously adjusted in accordance with object expectations. Pylyshyn  has also emphasized the way the brain seems to pre-conceive objects to which features are to be allocated and which are attributed continuing existence even if features like color change.
Feature integration theory[ edit ] In her feature integration theoryTreisman suggested that binding between features is mediated by the features' links to a common location.
Psychophysical demonstrations of binding failures under conditions of full attention provide support for the idea that binding is accomplished through common location tags. Although Von der Malsburg[ citation needed ] poses the problem in terms of binding "propositions" such as "triangle" and "top", these, in isolation, are not propositional.
How signals in the brain come to have propositional content, or meaning, is a much larger issue. However, both Marr  and Barlow  suggested, on the basis of what was known about neural connectivity in the s that the final integration of features into a percept would be expected to resemble the way words operate in sentences.
The role of synchrony in segregational binding remains controversial. Merker  has recently suggested that synchrony may be a feature of areas of activation in the brain that relates to an "infrastructural" feature of the computational system analogous to increased oxygen demand indicated via MRI.Posts about Dublin written by mairekennedybooks.
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Honors Thesis Binding Form. Honors Thesis Template. Students wishing to graduate with Highest Honors should submit these forms to the Honors College office. The Thesis Proposal is due at the before the thesis is begun, the Final Approval is due at the conclusion of the thesis, and the Binding Form is due after the Dean has approved the final.
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