Add in the marines and the total wearing uniforms is still no more than 25, to 30,
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The ascent to paramountcy At that point a radical change occurred in British policy. Two causes were principally responsible. There was a growing body of opinion within the company that only British control of India could end the constant wars and provide really satisfactory conditions for trade; full dominion would be economical as well as salutary.
The more-compelling immediate cause was the transformation of European politics by the French Revolution. It was certain that a French army under such a leader would find many friends in India to welcome it, not least Tippu Sultan.
The government of Lord Wellesley The next governor-general, Lord Mornington later Richard Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesleycombined the convictions of the imperialist group with a mandate to deal with the French.
Wellesley was thus able to use this fear of the French as a cover for his imperialism until he was near to complete success. His term of office — was therefore a decisive period in the rise of the British dominion.
Wellesley decided first to strike at Mysore, still a formidable military power and avowedly hostile. He had little difficulty getting the nizam for an ally and securing the neutrality of the peshwa.
The nizam, hard pressed by the Marathas, was persuaded to disband his contingent of French-trained troops in return for a promise of protection.
Tippu Sultan had entertained French republican envoys and had planted a tree of liberty at Seringapatambut when the British stormed Seringapatam in May he was isolated and at bay, and he found too late that concessionsin the Indian tradition, would not save him. Tippu Sultan died fighting in the breach.
This substantially enlarged the area of the Madras presidency. For the next three years Wellesley was occupied with certain exercises in realpolitik and with developing his device of the subsidiary treaty. The realpolitik was evidenced in four directions.
On the death of the reigning Carnatic nawab, Wellesley took over his territories, pensioning the new nawab with one-fifth of the revenue.
The same fate befell the small but highly cultivated state of Tanjore and the port city of Surat on a disputed succession. The biggest of these exercises concerned the Mughal successor state of Avadh in northern India, which had been in treaty relationship with the company since He pressed the nawab to disband his troops and increase his payment to the company for his subsidiary force.
In Wellesley annexed half the state, including the Ganges—Yamuna Doab and almost all of Rohilkhand. Whatever the verdict on the means employed, this move had important consequences. Avadh was isolated, and a jumping-off place was secured for an attack on the northern Marathas.
The company was no longer looking for buffer states as shields against attack but for territory that would serve as springboards for offensive action. The essence of the system was that the company undertook to protect a state from external attack in return for control of its foreign relations.
For this purpose it provided a subsidiary force of company troops, who were commonly stationed in a cantonment near the state capital. The state paid for this force by means of a subsidy, which was often commuted into ceding territory. In order to protect itself from an external enemy, the state in question bound itself irrevocably to the British power, providing at the heart, as it were, the means of its own coercion should it ever wish to resume independence.
The same system was applied to Avadh, when the great annexation of was said to be on account of the subsidiary force. It was then the turn of the Marathas—one of the few remaining bastions of Indian independence.
Had the Maratha chiefs remained united, Wellesley could have accomplished little; the death of the young peshwa released fresh dissensions, however, heightened by the death of the minister Nana Fadnavis in Such an opportunity at the centre of Maratha power was not to be missed; there was also the justification that Dawlat Rao Sindhia, in the north, had 40, French-trained troops under a French commander.The ascent to paramountcy.
At that point a radical change occurred in British policy. Two causes were principally responsible. There was a growing body of opinion within the company that only British control of India could end the constant wars and provide really satisfactory conditions for trade; full dominion would be economical as well as salutary.
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