Review comments are in an open archive for at least five years. There are several types of endorsement which documents receive: Material has been subjected to detailed, line by line discussion and agreement.
Pacific decadal oscillation to The ocean and atmosphere can work together to spontaneously generate internal climate variability that can persist for years to decades at a time.
Due to the long timescales of this circulation, ocean temperature at depth is still adjusting to effects of the Little Ice Age  which occurred between the and s. A schematic of modern thermohaline circulation. Tens of millions of years ago, continental-plate movement formed a land-free gap around Antarctica, allowing the formation of the ACCwhich keeps warm waters away from Antarctica.
Life Life affects climate through its role in the carbon and water cycles and through such mechanisms as albedoevapotranspirationcloud formationand weathering. Variations in CO2temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the lastyears Human influences Main article: Global warming In the context of climate variation, anthropogenic factors are human activities which affect the climate.
The scientific consensus on climate change is "that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities,"  and it "is largely irreversible".
While much remains to be learned, the core phenomenon, scientific questions, and hypotheses have been examined thoroughly and have stood firm in the face of serious scientific debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations.
This is due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols particulate matter in the atmosphereand the CO2 released by cement manufacture. There is very little change to the area-averaged annually averaged sunshine; but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution.
Combined together, these produce Milankovitch cycles which affect climate and are notable for their correlation to glacial and interglacial periods their correlation with the advance and retreat of the Sahara and for their appearance in the stratigraphic record.
Upon seawater temperature change, the solubility of CO2 in the oceans changed, as well as other factors affecting air-sea CO2 exchange. The period of extraordinarily few sunspots in the late 17th century was the Maunder minimum.
The Sun is the predominant source of energy input to the Earth.
Both long- and short-term variations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate. However, there is evidence for the presence of water on the early Earth, in the Hadean   and Archean   eons, leading to what is known as the faint young Sun paradox.
The Great Oxygenation Event —oxygenation of the atmosphere around 2. Values since not shown. Solar output varies on shorter time scales, including the year solar cycle  and longer-term modulations. Some studies point toward solar radiation increases from cyclical sunspot activity affecting global warming, and climate may be influenced by the sum of all effects solar variation, anthropogenic radiative forcingsetc.
The next step is to find more about these trace vapours, including whether they are of natural or human origin. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo inthe second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century, affected the climate substantially, subsequently global temperatures decreased by about 0.
In climate modelling the aim is to study the physical mechanisms and feedbacks of volcanic forcing.
The US Geological Survey estimates are that volcanic emissions are at a much lower level than the effects of current human activities, which generate — times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes.
The annual amount put out by human activities may be greater than the amount released by supererruptionsthe most recent of which was the Toba eruption in Indonesia 74, years ago.
Plate tectonics Over the course of millions of years, the motion of tectonic plates reconfigures global land and ocean areas and generates topography. This can affect both global and local patterns of climate and atmosphere-ocean circulation.
The locations of the seas are important in controlling the transfer of heat and moisture across the globe, and therefore, in determining global climate.
A recent example of tectonic control on ocean circulation is the formation of the Isthmus of Panama about 5 million years ago, which shut off direct mixing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
This strongly affected the ocean dynamics of what is now the Gulf Stream and may have led to Northern Hemisphere ice cover. Because of the stabilizing effect of the oceans on temperature, yearly temperature variations are generally lower in coastal areas than they are inland.
A larger supercontinent will therefore have more area in which climate is strongly seasonal than will several smaller continents or islands. Other mechanisms The Earth receives an influx of ionized particles known as cosmic rays from a variety of external sources, including the Sun.
A hypothesis holds that an increase in the cosmic ray flux would increase the ionization in the atmosphere, leading to greater cloud cover.Title: The Rise and Fall of the Kyoto Protocol – Climate Change as a political process Abstract: This research focuses on climate change as a political process: it describes the Kyoto Protocol, its origins and ratification process in the international climate-diplomatic.
Sample Essay The strategic plan of providing five million jobs through a five year steady investment of billion USD means a revamping of the federal budget as this time instead of merely taxing the taxpayers, they are being provided some form of relief in order to initiate a cleaner future.
Institute of Social Studies (ISS), The Netherlands ↑. The ISS, based in the Hague, is a postgraduate institution, offering a 15 months MA program in developing . At that, the Kyoto Protocol initially aims to reduce greenhouse gases, including methane, carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, and hydro fluorocarbons.
After its adoption in December , world countries had declared their concern about the urgency of climate change problem, and so now 3 years have passed since while the agreement is in force. The Kyoto Protocol under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international agreement that serves to reduce.
In September, the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements hosted a research workshop on an important topic regarding a controversial approach to addressing the threat of global climate change – “Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering”..
We benefitted from collaboration and support for the workshop from Harvard’s Solar Geoengineering Research Program (HSGRP).