Gestures in language acquisition Language development and processing begins before birth. Evidence has shown that there is language development occurring antepartum. DeCasper and Spence  performed a study in by having mothers read aloud during the last few weeks of pregnancy.
Examples of the Effects of Adult Language on Cognition Effects of Labeling Objects on Inductive Reasoning Some kinds of categories—two round balls, for example—are fairly easy to form, such that even babies treat the objects as similar.
But many objects that adults view as members of the same category are perceptually dissimilar, and children would not, on their own, categorize them together. Some categories have very diverse members: Atypical members of categories—thinking of a penguin as a bird, for example—also are difficult for children to categorize on their own.
Hearing perceptually diverse objects called by the same label enables children to treat them as members of the same category, which in turn affects the kinds of inductive inferences children draw about them cf. Even very young children will base their inductive inferences on the category to which objects belong rather than their perceptual features when the objects are labeled.
Providing a common label for perceptually disparate objects also is a way of transmitting cultural knowledge to children. This effect of labeling objects speaks to one of the ways in which ordinary interaction with babies enriches their cognitive development and early learning Graham et al.
While categorization has many benefits for developing inductive reasoning, it can also ultimately be associated with inferences that exaggerate differences between categories and similarities within categories.
This may be linked to some undesirable consequences, such as stereotyping or prejudice based on these inferences Master et al. It is impossible for any individual to experience first-hand all of the exemplars of a category.
The use of generics is thus an indispensable way of learning about the category as a whole. Generics are a powerful way of conveying general facts, properties, or information about a category, and those generalizations often can stand even in the face of counterexamples Gelman, The National Academies Press.
This stability has many advantages, but as with categorization, it also can be problematic—for example, generic statements about social categories can reify the categories and beliefs about them. When an individual encounters members of a social category that do not share the relevant trait or behavior, those people may then be seen as exceptions but the generalization will still stand.
Properties conveyed by generics also are construed as central or essential to the category Cimpian and Markman, Four- and 5-year-old children given the same information conveyed using generic versus nongeneric phrases interpret the information quite differently.
Subtle differences in generic versus nongeneric language used to convey information to children can shape the kinds of generalizations they make, the strength of those generalizations, and the extent to which properties are considered central or defining of the category.
Here, too, generics can sometimes play an unwanted role Cimpian and Markman, Dweck and colleagues have shown that children who believe an ability is inherent and fixed are more likely to give up when faced with failure and to lose motivation for and interest in a task, while children who view an ability as malleable are more likely to take on the challenge and work to improve their skill.
Many of the foundations of sophisticated forms of learning, including those important to academic success, are established in the earliest years of life. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation:You may wonder why there are so many different psychology perspectives and whether one approach is correct and others wrong.
Most psychologists would agree that no one perspective is correct, although in the past, in the early days of psychology, the behaviorist would have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one.
4. Child Development and Early Learning. The domains of child development and early learning are discussed in different terms and categorized in different ways in the various fields and disciplines that are involved in research, practice, and policy related to children from birth through age 8.
Language development is a process starting early in human life. Infants start without knowing a language, yet by 10 months, babies can distinguish speech sounds and engage in babbling.
Some research has shown that the earliest learning begins in utero when the fetus starts to recognize the sounds and speech patterns of its mother's . Apr 16, · Perceptual and Motor Development Domain California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Foundations.
For years, researchers, educators, and early childhood professionals have emphasized the interrelatedness of the developmental domains. The current research supports an even greater appreciation of the profound .
Early experiences have both cumulative and delayed effects on individual children’s development; optimal periods exist for certain types of development and learning.
5. Development proceeds in predictable directions toward greater complexity, organization, and internalization. Earlychildhood NEWS is the online resource for teachers and parents of young children, infants to age 8. You will find articles about developmentally appropriate practice, child health, safety and behavior as well as links to teacher resources and networking opportunities.