Make the reader believe the given paper contains the useful information on the relevant problem and matters for the development of science. Add a contents page if the prompt tells to do it. Introduction Painstake the study into the background of the experiment. Put yourself in the shoes of the potential reader and think about why this person would be interested in reading about a particular problem from cover to cover.
Historical approaches[ edit ] Although the word "acculturation" was coined by J. Powell in the earliest record of acculturation can be found in Sumerian inscriptions from B. These inscriptions laid out rules for commerce and interaction with foreigners designed to limit acculturation and protect traditional cultural practices.
Accordingly, he proposed that no one should travel abroad until they are at least 40 years of age, and that travellers should be restricted to the ports of cities to minimize contact with native citizens.
One of the most notable forms of acculturation is imperialismthe most common predecessor of direct cultural change.
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Although these cultural changes may seem simple, the combined results are both robust and complex, impacting both groups and individuals from the original culture and the host culture.
The first psychological theory of acculturation was proposed in W. From studying Polish immigrants in Chicago, they illustrated three forms of acculturation corresponding to three personality types: Bohemian adopting the host culture and abandoning their culture of originPhilistine failing to adopt the host culture but preserving their culture of originand creative-type able to adapt to the host culture while preserving their culture of origin.
Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups InMilton Gordon 's book Assimilation in American Life outlined seven stages of the assimilative process, setting the stage for literature on this topic.
Later, Young Yun Kim authored a reiteration of Gordon's work, but argued cross-cultural adaptation as a multi-staged process. Kim's theory focused on the unitary nature of psychological and social processes and the reciprocal functional personal environment interdependence.
In Kim's approach, assimilation is unilinear and the sojourner must conform to the majority group culture in order to be "communicatively competent. Thus, the term adaptation is used by Gudykunst and Kim to mean conformity to the coercive power pp.
According to this definition, any attempt to maintain one's original values, beliefs, ways of thinking, feelings, or behaviors constitutes mental illness or "maladaptation" p. This is further emphasized by Gudykunst and Kimstating that the way of "upward-forward" evolution toward functional fitness and psychological health is for the newcomer to willfully "unlearn" and "deculturize" themselves p.
Gudykunst and Kim proposed both psychotherapy and abandonment of all ethnic relations and associations with ethnic ties to help immigrants achieve "integrative" conformity Again, this is not integration but rather dissolution of the newcomer's original identity.
According to Gudykunst and Kimincreased disintegration is preferred, even if it leads to extreme distress for the immigrant. Ironically, Gudykunst and Kim seemed to identify the concept of acculturative stress stating "even extreme mental illness [caused by "conformity pressure" p.
No matter how unjust or cruel, Gudykunst and Kim argue that the host's way of thinking, feeling, and behaving constitutes the "higher level" of psychic evolution and any resistance to conform indicates that the immigrant is communicatively incompetent, immature, mentally ill pp.
Evolutionary progress for the individual requires the individual to "abandon identification with the cultural patterns that have constituted who one is and what one is" p.Published: Mon, 5 Dec Introduction.
The possibility of human cloning rose when Scottish scientists at Roslin Institute created the much-celebrated sheep “Dolly”, this thrill the worldwide interest and concern because of its scientific and ethical implications.
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Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures. The effects of acculturation can be seen at multiple levels in both the original (native) and newly adopted (host) cultures.
Historically speaking, acculturation is a direct change of one's culture through dominance over another's culture through either military or political. Answer: Risk management is the process of discovering and assessing the risks to an organization's operations and determining how those risks can be controlled or mitigated.
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