In Persia some invertebrate groups have been studied systematically, and studies have been undertaken for all vertebrate groups, but the scientific literature is vast and scattered; a preliminary attempt to include the most important works in an annotated bibliography was undertaken by R.
Subsequent explorers who made zoological Rencontres egypte included Guillaume A. Loftus, who collected some zoological specimens along the Persian-Turkish border region in ; Alexander Keyserling, who collected a few reptiles and fish in Khorasan in ; and Theodor Kotschy, a botanical collector who brought some reptiles, Rencontres egypte adequate location notes, to the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna.
Apparently the first attempt to compile a list of all the vertebrates known from Persia was that of Filippo De Filippi, who included 30 mammals, birds, 39, 3 amphibians, and 22 fishes. He also provided a list of land and fresh-water mollusks. A more thorough and systematic synopsis of the vertebrates, exclusive of fish, was prepared by the Persian Boundary Commission of under the direction of Frederic Goldsmid q.
William Thomas Blanford listed 89 mammals, birds, 92 reptiles, and 9 amphibians, as well as providing a survey of scientific natural history in Persia up to He included a brief descriptive analysis of the fauna and considered the relations between the faunas of various regions of Persia and those of neighboring regions.
No other author has attempted such a comprehensive survey of the Persian fauna. The Russian ornithologist N.
The most important synoptic lists, handbooks, and papers include those of Simon H. Jervis Rencontres egypte ; idem in Camb. According to Scott, species are known to occur in Persia. The most comprehensive synopsis of Persian mammals is that of Douglas Lay, who accompanied the Street expedition in He provided descriptions of habitats, remarks on specimens collected by the expedition, and a synoptic list of the mammal species known in Persia inwith summaries of their distribution.
Xavier de Misonne published a descriptive zoogeographic analysis of the mammals, as well as brief descriptions and characterizations ; idem in Camb.
Fred Harrington produced a guide to Persian mammals under the auspices of the Department of the environment; it was organized by type of habitat, rather than taxonomically, and included species, of them illustrated. Probably the most detailed systematic study of a group of mammals in Persia is that of the bats q.
Iran provided a zoogeographic analysis of lizards and an updated list and synopsis of turtles, crocodiles, and amphisbaenians. Amphibians have traditionally been considered together with reptiles. The most detailed amphibian study so far is that by Josef Eiselt and J.
Schmidtler on the frogs of Persia. Apart from studies of commercially important species undertaken by members of the Department of the Environment, the fishes q.
Nelson Annandale and S. Berg provided the first list of fresh-water fish since that of De Filippi; and M. Saadati attempted a systematic treatment. Armentrout ; compiled a checklist of Persian fresh-water fish, and the list has been extended and updated in the publications of Brian Coad ; ;who has recorded native fresh-water species and has provided the only published zoogeographical analysis.
Insects constitute the largest segment of Persian fauna. Although there has been no comprehensive treatment, there is a large literature on individual species. In a symposium volume on the fauna and zoogeography of the Middle East, edited by Friedhelm Krupp, Wolfgang Schneider, and Ragnar Kinzelbach, a number of important papers shed light on distribution patterns and relationships among the insects of Persia and neighboring countries, includingOdonata SchneiderRaphidiopetera H.
Fresh-water and terrestrial gastropods and oligochaetes also occur in Persia. Their relations at the generic and family levels are, however, for the most part with those of Eurasia, and they form part of the fauna classically termed Palearctic.
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Persia is the most geographically complex area within this region and consequently has the greatest biological diversity for its size in southwestern Asia. In this article only a descriptive outline of the distribution of Persian fauna in relation to physiographic and ecological features can be presented, with no speculation upon historical factors that have produced the present complex of species.
Except for faunal elements shared with other regions, southwestern Asian species are distributed between two broad types of landscape.
Species occupying this area have been labeled Irano-Turanian by most zoogeographers.
Iran divided them into Iranian elements, restricted to the uplands, and Aralo-Caspian elements, concentrated mainly on the plains and basins of Turkmenistan and neighboring republics of Central Asia see iii, below. The second major landscape type, encompassing the low-lying desert areas along the southern margins of the Palearctic from North Africa to northwestern India, is home to the Saharo-Sindian group of fauna.
Within these regions are species and associations of species with much more restricted distribution. Considering the fauna of western Asia as a whole, various authors have introduced a confusing array of terms, attempting to systematize patterns of distribution within particular taxa.
In addition to the labels already mentioned, there are Holarctic for the temperate and boreal latitudes of the northern hemisphere, including North America; Western and Eastern Palearctic; Euro-Siberian for the northern latitudes of the Palearctic; Eremian for Saharo-Sindian plus the arid portions of Irano-Turanian; Ethiopian or Afrotropical for sub-Saharan Africa; Oriental for southern and southeastern Asia, Paleotropical for Ethiopian plus Oriental; Mediterranean for southern Europe and the North African littoral plus the Levant; and various subdivisions that are more or less self-explanatory.Ads are the worst, right?
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