Liquid fluoride thorium reactor A molten salt reactor  is a type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolantor even the fuel itself is a molten salt mixture. There have been many designs put forward for this type of reactor and a few prototypes built.
But they hold some powerful advantages in applications in which size and weight are less important factors.
Basic batteries The building blocks of a battery are the cathode and anode, as well as an electrolyte that allows the cathode and anode to exchange ions in one direction as they deliver electricity or in the other direction as it is being recharged. For a lithium-ion battery, the anode, or the negative terminal, can be graphite, while the cathode, or positive terminal, might be constructed of a lithium metal oxide.
The electrolyte allows lithium ions hence the name to flow from cathode to anode during charging as illustrated or in the opposite direction when the battery is delivering, rather than storing, energy. The separator is porous to the traveling ions but must prevent the anode or cathode from touching or disaster results.
The electrolyte is generally flammable. All in all, as recent news events have proven, the lithium-ion battery is a dangerous proposition.
The anode can be carbon, and the cathode can be a material such as manganese oxide. In this illustration, the anode is zinc. The essence of a saltwater battery.
Because of this, there is no need for the complex and troublesome electronic circuitry that every lithium-ion battery needs to ensure that they charge and discharge only within safe parameters. In addition, unlike their lithium-based cousins, saltwater batteries can be more deeply discharged drained of electrical energy with no damage to the battery.
Commercialization of saltwater batteries There is, so far, one major manufacturer of saltwater batteries, and it has run into some non-technological problems, so at least temporarily, they have suspended operations.
The technology itself has been well-received, but in the battery business, a producer has to get big fast or go home. Smart money expects another concern with deeper pockets, most likely a provider of solar energy systems, to pick up the ball and run with it.
Indeed, saltwater batteries are so safe that simplified versions make great projects for kids. Watch this little guy light it up. Storing renewable energy The biggest disadvantage of all forms of salt-water batteries is that, to store a given amount of electricity, they are bulkier and heavier than other commercially available batteries.
For this reason, the electrical output of renewable plants is, by nature, intermittent. Saltwater batteries can be charged by that excess energy generated during times of high output and then release that stored power to the grid when it is needed.
Since the sun shines as brightly and the wind blows as intensely in remote areas as they do anywhere else, renewable energy plants are most often located in remote areas where land is cheap.
In such locations, the added footprint of a less energy-dense battery system is not an issue, making saltwater batteries the ideal choice. This made them much lighter to transport or carry. The US inventor agreed to defer royalties until the war ended, and then had to sue the Army when they refused to pay up afterwards.An in-depth historical and current review is presented on the science of lithium-ion battery (LIB) solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on the graphite anode, including structure, morphology, composition, electrochemistry, and formation mechanism.
May 16, · The cheapest and easiest way to disinfect water?
Sunlight. Just leave a clear glass or plastic bottle out in the sun for six hours. SODIS, or solar water disinfection, is . He made a giant stack of alternating layers of zinc, blotting paper soaked in salt water, and silver. This early design for a battery became known as the voltaic pile.
Figure 1. what exactly do we mean with “salt”? In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound which is made up of two groups of oppositely charged ions. The ion with a positive charge is called a cation, and the one with a negative charge is called an anion. Search for the Super Battery.
Explore the hidden world of energy storage and how it holds the keys to a greener future. Read the latest research on everything from new longer life batteries and batteries with viruses to a nano-size battery.